National Law Day which is also known as Samvidhan Diwas or Constitution Day is annually celebrated on 26th November in India. This day commemorates the adoption of the Indian constitution in 1949.
After thirty years of November 26, 1949, the Supreme Court Bas Association declared this day as National Law Day. Since then, this day is celebrated as Law Day throughout India, especially among the members of the legal fraternity.
This day also encourages people to take a look at the constitution to know all about their rights and also about the laws of the nation so that they can be aware of all the laws of the nation and hence it urges people to always follow the laws of the nation as a responsible citizen.
|Event||National Law Day|
|Date||November 26, 2022|
|Significance||The day commemorates the adoption of the Indian constitution in 1949|
National Law Day History:
In 1928, the All Parties Conference convened a committee in Lucknow to prepare the Constitution of India, which was known as the Nehru Report. Most of the colonial India was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. From 1947 to 1950, the same legislation continued to be implemented as India was a dominion of Britain for these three years, as each princely state was convinced by Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon to sign the articles of integration with India, and the British government continued to be responsible for the external security of the country.
On November 26th, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India formally adopted the Constitution of India. It became effective on January 26th, 1950. Thus, the constitution of India repealed the Indian Independence Act 1947 and Government of India Act 1935 when it became effective on 26 January 1950. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign, democratic and republic with the constitution. National Law Day aims to bring awareness about the importance of the Constitution and Dr. BR(Bhimrao Ramji) Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is considered to be the chief architect of the Constitution of India.
During the making of constitution, mindful of India’s needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The latter, which led to the creation of India and Pakistan, divided the former Constituent Assembly in two. The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389-member assembly (reduced to 299 after the partition of India) took almost three years to draft the constitution holding eleven sessions over a 165-day period.
The Constitution was drawn from several sources, while India’s needs and conditions were given paramount importance. B R Ambedkar studied the Constitutions of over 60 countries before drafting the Constitution of India. Dr. BR Ambedkar played a very crucial in writing the constitution of India and that’s why he is also referred as the father of the Indian constitution. Hence this day is also used to pay and offer tribute to Dr. BR Ambedkar for all of his constituents in making the laws for the country and also for his struggle against caste discrimination, inequality and for his role in Indian Independence movement as well.
National Law Day Significance:
The Constitution of India is a set of written principles and precedents of the Government of India. It frames fundamental political principles, procedures, rights, directive principles, restrictions, and duties of the government and the citizens of the country. The Constitution of India declares the country a sovereign, secular, socialist, and democratic republic. It assures its citizen’s equality, liberty, and justice. The main objectives of celebrating Law Day is to recognize the important principles which formed the basis of the Constitution. These principles include the rule of law, independence of the judiciary and the independence of legal profession.
The preamble is a brief statement which records the aims and aspirations of the people of India. The Constitution of India reads: “We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic, and to secure to all its citizens: “Justice, social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and opportunity, and to promote among them all — fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; In our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.”
The Supreme Court (SC) supports the goals of the Constitution. This Court is the defender of the Constitution and the principles laid down, human rights, and peace. It has always responded to the changes within the society and moved with its pace. It has intervened to protect democracy, human rights and to honour the rule of law. Through Article 21 of the Constitution, it has given more information and purpose to the law. The SC has protected the values of secularism and respected the sentiments of all caste and creeds. The Court is an independent judiciary, under the scheme of the Constitution, and it has played a good role in acting as a vigilant officer through various legislatures and executive directives.
On November 25, 1949, the day before the Constituent Assembly wound up its proceedings, BR Ambedkar made a moving speech. It ended with three warnings for the future. The first was regarding the place of popular protest in a democracy. “One must abandon the methods of civil disobedience, non-cooperation and satyagraha,” he said. The second warning dealt with the unthinking submission to charismatic authority. “Bhakti in religion may be the road to salvation of a soul. But in politics, bhakti or hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship,” Ambedkar said. His final warning was that Indians should not be content with political democracy as inequality and hierarchy were still embedded in Indian society. “If we continue to deny it (equality) for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril.”
National Law Day Celebrations:
National Law Day is not a public holiday, however, government departments and schools across the country acknowledge the day with various events and activities. As per the Department of Education and Literacy, the preamble of the constitution is read in all schools by all students as a way to make then aware about the constitution and laws of the nation.
In addition, there are quiz and essay competitions organized both online and offline on the subject of the constitution of India. There is also a lecture on salient features of the constitution in each school. The Department of Higher Education also requests various universities to arrange mock parliamentary debates in colleges and universities across the country.
The Ministry of External Affairs has also directed all overseas Indian schools to celebrate 26 November as Constitution Day and directed embassies to translate the constitution into the local language of that nation and distribute it to various academies, libraries and faculties of Indology so that everyone can be aware of the constitution of the country.
Most Searched FAQs on National Law Day:
1. When is National Law Day celebrated?
National Law Day is annually celebrated on 26th November in India.
2. Who is known as the father of the Indian constitution?
Dr. BR Ambedkar is known as the father of the Indian constitution.
3. What is the importance of the Constitution of India?
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens.