Jharkhand Foundation Day 2022: History, Significance and Celebrations

Jharkhand Foundation Day is annually celebrated on 15th November. It commomerotes the formation of the Jharkhand state after it was carved out from the Bihar state in 2000. 

Jharkhand is a state located in Eastern India. It is the 15th largest state by area and 14th largest state by population. Hindi is the official language of the state, however there are many regional languages spoken in state mostly tribal languages as it has a large tribal population. 

Interestingly the day also coincides with the birth anniversary of the tribal leader and one of the most prominent heroes of the state ‘Birsa Munda’ who is known for leading the Munda rebellion against the British. 

Event Jharkhand Foundation Day
Date November 15, 2022
Day Tuesday
Significance The day commomerotes the formation of the Jharkhand state
Observed by India

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Jharkhand Foundation Day History: 

The state of Jharkhand has been inhabited by humans from a long time in history as Stone tools and microliths from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods have been discovered in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region. There are also ancient cave paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from the Meso-Chalcolithic period (9,000–5,000 BC). During 2nd millennium BCE the use of Copper tools spread in Chota Nagpur Plateau and these find complex are known as the Copper Hoard Culture. Barudih, located in the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, yielded evidence of microliths, Neolithic celts, iron slags, wheel made pottery, and iron objects (including a sickle). 

In Mahabharata, the region was referred as Kark Khand due to its location near Tropic of Cancer. Later, the Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha and Anga. Nanda Empire ruled the region during 4th century BCE. In Mauryan period, this region was ruled by a number of states, which were collectively known as the Atavika (forest) states. These conquered states fell under the hegemony of the Maurya empire during Ashoka’s expansionist reign (c. 232 BCE). In the 7th century, Chinese traveler Xuanzang passed through the region. He described the kingdom as Karnasuvarna and Shashanka as its ruler. To the north of the kingdom was Magadha, Champa was in East, Mahendra in the west, and Orissa in the south. The region was also part of Pala Empire. 

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Later, the state of Jharkhand came under the British colonial rule. Between 1895 and 1900, a movement against the British Raj was led by Birsa Munda (born 15 November 1875) known as Munda Rebellion. Birsa Munda was captured by British forces and declared dead on 9 June 1900 in the Ranchi Jail, due to Cholera, according to records of the British colonial government. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region. 

After India became independent the parts of the state acceded to the Dominion of India and came under the erstwhile Bihar state. Then in 1955, Jharkhand Party, led by Jaipal Singh Munda, submitted a memorandum to States Reorganization Commission for Jharkhand state for tribals, but it was rejected because the region had different languages and the tribals were in minority. However the Jharkhand movement continued for years with lots of struggles for the demand for a seperate state. Finally the movement became successful and the state of Jharkhand was officially carved out from the Bihar state on 15th November in 2000 after passing of the Bihar Reorganization Act. 

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Jharkhand Foundation Day Significance: 

The name of the state means ‘Forest Land’. As the word “Jhar” means ‘forest’ and “Khand” means ‘land’ in various Indo-Aryan languages. Thus “Jharkhand” means forest land. Jharkhand is an eastern Indian state and it shares its border with neighboring states like Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. The state of Jharkhand is rich in mineral resources with an abundance of coal, iron ore, copper ore, uranium, mica, bauxite, granite, limestone, silver, graphite, magnetite, and dolomite and it alone accounts for about 40% of India’s mineral. 

The climate of Jharkhand is humid from subtropical in the north to tropical, wet, and dry in the south-east. The place consists of summer, rainy, autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The state has the warmest region with an average temperature of 33 degrees centigrade with the best travel time from October to May. The culture of Jharkhand has a variety of festivals similar to Bihar, like Basant Panchami, Holi, Diwali, Chhath, Jityya Bhaiya that are widely celebrated across the state. Santhal and Chhau are the popular dance forms that are done by the Santhal tribe. 

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Jharkhand is a diverse state with very different people groups, it is a state which has one of the highest concentration of tribal people in the country. It is most notably famous for ita various tribal culture and traditions. Although despite very rich is resources the state is still struggling from many basic issues related to education, income, corruption, etc. and is also considered one of the least developed state in India however in the recent years the state seems to move forward and it is doing better than the Bihar state. Moreover having a state gives pride to the unique Jharkhandi identity in the country which people celebrates and enjoy on this day. 

As this day also coincides with the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda one of the state’s biggest hero so this day is also used to pay tribute to him. He led the rebellion that came to be known as Ulgulan (revolt) or the Munda rebellion against the British government-imposed feudal state system. He awakened the masses and sowed. He combined religion with politics and traveled across villages giving discourses and building a politico-military organization. His struggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribals led to the passing of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908 which restricted the passing of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.  

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Jharkhand Foundation Day Celebrations: 

Every year many events and programs are organized by the Jharkhand state government to celebrate this day. Many times special schemes are announced on this day to benefit the local population. Along with these schemes many cultural songs and dance programs are organized on this day at many public places across the state. 

This is the great time to visit this incredible state of Jharkhand. As during this time various types of celebrations takes place all over the state which mostly includes cultural programs. If you are interested in tribal traditions then at this time you can witness many tribal folk songs and dance performances in the state. Besides all of the cultural stuff, Jharkhand is a very beautiful state to visit as well with many prominent sites located within it. Some of the best places to visit are Dassam Falls, Patratu Valley, Baba Baidyanath Temple, Hazaribagh, Shikharji and the cities of Ranchi and Jamshedpur. 

Many people also likes to celebrate this day by going out for an outing or picnic with their families and friends. Delicious Jharkhandi cuisine is also greatly enjoyed on the occasion, some of the most popular foods of Jharkhand includes Dhuska, Pitthas, Litti Chokha, Chilka Roti, Rugra, Thekua, Malpua, etc. So even if you are outside of Jharkhand don’t forget to treat yourself with delicious Jharkhandi cuisine! 

This day is also celebrated as the Birsa Munda Jayanti as it is the birth anniversary of one of the biggest state’s hero and leader. So on this day tribute is offered to Birsa Munda during which many politicians and prominent personalities offer him tribute by putting garland over his statues and photos. Some tribal groups also worship him on this day as they refer to him as Bhagwan Birsa. 

Most Searched FAQs on Jharkhand Foundation Day: 

1. When is Jharkhand Foundation Day celebrated? 

Jharkhand Foundation Day is annually celebrated on 15th November. 

2. What does Jharkhand Foundation Day commemorates? 

Jharkhand Foundation Day commemorates the formation of the Jharkhand state after being carved out from the Bihar state in 2000. 

3. What is the capital of Jharkhand? 

Ranchi is the capital of Jharkhand, while Dumka is its sub-capital. 

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